(the island of Abaco in the Bahamas)The Abaco Barb |
|American Creme and White||(Also Known as American Albino) Cream and White registry http://www.whitehorseranchnebraska.com/registry.htm|
|American saddlebred||American saddlebred horse association of australia|
|Andravida||(Also Known As Eleia, Ilia, Greek) Found in the region of Ilia in Greece the Andravida is a light riding and draft breed. Developed in the early 20th century from Anglo-Norman crossed with local breeds. Nonius stallions were used after 1920. The herdbook was established in 1995. The breed is nearly extinct.|
|Argentine-Crillo||The Argentine Criollo is a light riding horse found in Argentina and Uruguay. They are of the Criollo type and were revived in the period from 1875 to 1890.|
|Balearic||The Balearic originated in Spain on the Island of Majorca. It is used mainly for a riding pony and stands 14 h.h.
Among the rarest of equine breeds, the Balearic island horse or pony is of ancient origin and little known. Because the breed is considered unimportant by officials, it is very hard to find information about and its existence is barely acknowledged.
Some report this to be a delicate, beautiful pony with primitive features of upright mane and slender legs. Others say the Balearic is a scrubby individual, roughly made.
Summerhays' Encyclopedia for Horsemen states that the Balearic is an ancient and distinctive type most abundant in the Palma district; differing from other breeds in slender limbs, free, graceful carriage, a short, thick, arched neck, and delicate head with Roman nose. Summerhays claimed the Balearic may be descended from horses shown on ancient Greek coins and vases.
The ponies are used on small farms for agricultural work and by peasants for transportation and in harness. They are usually bay or chestnut color, sometimes gray. Possibly there is a link to the tiny Skyros of Greece.
Population Status: RARE
|Ban-ei||The Ban-ei race horse originated in Japan. Its main use is for racing. It is a heavy, draft type bred for Ban-ei Keiba race in which the horse pulls a heavy sledge. It originated from the Percheron and Breton. It stands 14.3 to 16.1 h.h. Population Status: Common|
|Bavarian Warmblood||British Bavarian Warmblood association http://www.bbwa.co.uk/|
|Bhirum Pony||The Bhirum Pony is a dwarf breed found in the northern regions of Nigeria.|
|Bhotia Pony||The Bhotia Pony is found in Nepal, Bhutan and the Sikkim and Darjeeling regions of India. They are a riding and pack animal, similar to the Tibetan Pony but less broad. They are most often white (gray) or bay in coloration.|
|Boulonnais||the thoroughbred horse among draught horses French Association http://www.cheval-boulonnais.com/ (French site)|
|Brindle Horses *||(horses with brindle colouring - amasing!) Brindle horses http://members.aol.com/brindlehos/ Brindle and Striped Equine International http://www.elcascabel.com/|
|Canadian Pony of the Americas||CPOA Association www.canadianpoa.org|
|Curly Haired Missouri Fox Trotters||Deserter Creek Curlies Farm www.DCCurlies.web.com|
|Danube||The Danube is a light riding and draft horse found in Bulgaria. The originated during the 1920's from crossing the Nonius, Pleven, halfbred riding and local breeds with Russian Trotter and Thoroughbred breeding. They are usually black or bay.|
|Djerma||The Djerma is found in middle Niger in western Africa. It is a light horse breed which is predominately dark in coloration. The Djerma originated from the Barb and Dongola breeds.|
|East Bulgarian||The East Bulgarian is a light riding and draft horse, usually chestnut, bay or black. They have originated since 1900 from Thoroughbred and English Halfbred crossed with Anglo-Arab, Arab and Bulgarian Native horses.|
|Estonian Native||The Estonian Native is one of the few breeds which has retained the characteristic features of the native northern horse and were not significantly influenced by crossing with other breeds. It played an important role in the formation of the Obva (now extinct) and Vyatka breeds. The breed has also been used with the Hackney in the formation of the Tori breed and with Ardennes in forming the Estonian Draft.
The Estonian first penetrated Russia via Novgorod as early as the 14th and 15th centuries due to its good working qualities and high adaptability. As agriculture developed and demand for working horses grew, simultaneously with pure breeding the native horses were crossed with larger breeds. Reliable information on the improvement stages of the Estonian dates back to the origins of the Tori stud in 1856. The stud was engaged in pure breeding of native horses and crossing them with light harness and saddle breeds. The best crossbred mares were subsequently used to develop the Tori. The first pure breeding stage yielded good results; the purebred stallion Vansikasa, distinguished by extraordinary strength and pulling endurance, was produced. He won many prizes in tests at Paris, Riga and Moscow exhibitions in the native horses group. His daughters were foundation mares of the Tori.
Nonetheless, as agriculture became more intensive and the road network and transportation needs developed, the Estonian Native lost the competition to the new breed and is no longer used in mainland Estonia, surviving only on the islands of Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Muhu. The total herd is 1,000 head.
The modern Estonian is not large in size; the head is well proportioned, has a wide forehead and is sometimes somewhat coarse; the neck is on the short side or medium in length and fleshy; the withers are low and wide; the loin is well muscled; the croup is average in length and has a normal slope. The chest is very wide and deep; the legs are short, properly set and distinguished by firmness and cleanness. The hoofs are extremely solid. The animal is undemanding; it has extraordinary endurance and quite good action. The fodder utilization is good. It has a willing disposition.
The average measurement (in cm) are: stallions - height at withers 142, oblique body length 147, chest girth 178, cannon bone girth 19.5; mares: 141, 149, 182 and 19 respectively. The predominant colours are chestnut, bay, light bay, dun and grey.
Inbreeding has become widespread due to the limited size of the breeding stock. The average inbreeding coefficient is 3.12%. Practically no inbreeding depression as regards work performance, measurements or conformation has been found, but closely inbred individuals take more time to mature. The breed's champion stallion at the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements in 1984, Askar, had an inbreeding coefficient of 18%.
The Estonian is long lived; the mare Tenki, born in 1946, was still alive in 1983 at Sõrve state farm in Kingisepp region.
Work performance records of the Native Estonian are quite high. The 2000 m walking draught record with a pull of 150 kg is 17 min 26 sec; the 2000 m trotting draught record with a pull of 50 kg is 6 min 25 sec; draught endurance with a load of 9 tons was 208 m.
At present the local Estonian is used for light agricultural work, as a saddle horse for children and in tourism. It represents good breeding material for the production of ponies in various crosses. It is also being used to cross with disappearing Ob (Priobskaya) breed.
|Faeroes Pony||The horses found on the Faeroe Islands are one of the oldest and purest breeds of horses found today. They are comparable with the Icelandic Pony in that they also are of ancient origin and have been bred pure, at least in part, due to isolated conditions.
The Faeroe Islands are located in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the Shetland Islands. There are seventeen inhabited islands and several islets and reefs, in total, covering 540 square miles. The climate is oceanic and mild with little variation in temperature. The islands see frequent fog and rain, approximately 60 inches a year. There are no reptiles or indigenous land mammals found in the Faeroe Islands. They are naturally treeless due to the strong western winds and frequent gales. They were first settled by Irish monks in approximately 700 A.D. and were colonized by Vikings around 800.
The Faeroes pony resemble horses brought to Europe from Asia in about 200 A.D. These small horses were brought to the islands by the early Celtic and Scandinavian settlers.
Before the formation of the the association for the Faeroes pony there were only five individuals still in existence. By 1988, the numbers had increased to 27 due to preservation efforts of concerned breeders. All the animals have been entered into the stud book and their blood types have been identified. They have also been evaluated for breeding purposes and 24 of the animals were approved for breeding.
Most Faeroes are bay with some black. They are also sometimes found in brown but never in gray or skewbald. Occasionally a palomino or pale dun appears in the breed. The hair is thick and grows very heavy in the winter.
|Fleuve||The Fleuve is found in Senegal in western Africa. It is a light horse breed which was developed by crossing Barb with the local pony breed. The Fleuve is the origin of the Fouta breed.|
|Fouta||The Fouta is a light horse breed found in Senegal in western Africa. It is a composite breed of Fleuve and M'Bayar.|
|French Saddlebred||Developed in the 1950's from halfbreds, including Anglo-Norman and its derivatives Charentais, Charolais, Vendeen and also Corlais, the French Saddlebred is a light riding horse found throughout France.|
|French Trotter||The French Trotter originated in the 20th century from the Norman Coach Horse with Thoroughbred, Hackney and American Trotter bloodlines included. They are found in the Normandy region of France.|
|Iomud *||Also Known As: Iomudskaya (Russian), Yamud (Iran) The Iomud breed originates from ancient Turkmenian horses. It was developed by the Iomud tribe in the Tashauz oasis in southern Turkmenia. As the breed occupied the margin of the Turkmenian breed area, it was influenced by steppe breeds. During the 14th century, it was influenced by Arabian stallions. In contrast to the Akhal-Teke, the Iomud breed is kept in herds in the desert and semi-desert. The Iomud conformation has the following features: large clean-cut head, sometimes Roman-nosed, medium-long neck; medium-high withers, solid back with small curve to the withers, nicely turned and regularly sloping croup, shallow chest; clean fine legs, often bowed; sparse mane and tail; delicate skin. Color is grey or chestnut, rarely golden chestnut or black. The measurements (in cm) of stallions are: height at withers 152, oblique body length 151, chest girth 168, cannon bone girth 19; mares: 149, 150, 167 and 18.3 respectively. The Iomud is a long-lived healthy horse. It shows soft "floating" action. The purebred population has declined substantially. Stud farms to preserve the Iomud genotype were set up in Turkmenia in 1983. They are charged with protecting the breed and restoring the breeding nucleus to a size of 240-250 mares from the present 140 mares. A conservation farm is being established in the Kyzyl-Atrek district.|
|Jinzhou||The Jinzhou horse is found in Jin county, southern Liaodong peninsula in the Liaoning region of China. They are a riding and draft horse which is also kept for its meat and milk production. It has developed in 1926 from the local Mongolian type crossed with imported light and heavy horse breeds.|
|Jutland *||Also Known By: Jydsk (Danish), Danish
The Jutland is Denmark's own breed of heavy horse. Its ancestors have been bred on the Jutland peninsula since the middle ages and before. Selection for the breed as it appears today began around 1850. One of the greatest contributions to the success of the breed came from the stallion Oppenheim who was imported from England in 1862. Oppenheim was Shire and Suffolk. Six generations later the stallion Aldrup Menkedal, who is considered the foundation stallion of the breed, was born. Almost all Jutland breeding can now be traced back to Hovding and Prins af Jylland, two of his sons.
Beginning in 1928, there has been a close association between the Jutland breed and the Carlsberg brewery which uses Jutlands to haul brewery wagons. At one time there were 210 Jutland horses with Carlsberg and today about twenty are still used for beer transportation in Copenhagen. The Carlsberg horses take part in many shows, festivals and films, promoting both the breed and the brewery.
The Jutland is a medium-sized draft horse with a quick, free action. Like the Suffolk, the coat is usually chestnut with a flaxen mane and tail, and the breed's connection with the Suffolk is evident in the compact, round body, the deep girth, and the massive quarters. There are also individuals within the breed which are black or brown but they are uncommon. In one respect, it differs entirely from the Suffolk, for the Jutland's legs carry a heavy feather that is not found in the former. The breed has a reputation for being docile, kindly, and a tireless, willing worker. The joints on the Jutland are inclined to be fleshy. The forelegs are short and set wide apart. They are coarse of feather on the lower legs. The withers are broad and flat. The neck is short and thick and they have heavily muscled shoulders and exceptionally broad chests. The head is plain and has a squared muzzle but is not unattractive.
The Jutland, along with the Suffolk, is responsible for the Schleswig horse.
|Kabarda *||This is a native North Caucasian breed found mainly in the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Republic and in the foothills area of Stavropol territory. In the process of its formation the Kabarda was influenced by many breeds - steppe horses, the Karabakh, the Persian and the Turkmenian. Kabarda horses are kept in taboons and transferred to mountain pastures in summer and to the foothills area in winter.
The Kabarda is primarily a saddle horse. The bulk of the horses are not large. Their average height ranges from 145 to 152 cm. However, the measurements (in cm) of stallions at studs were as follows: height at withers 155, oblique body length 153, chest girth 180, cannon bone girth 20.
The Kabarda has a solid clean build. Its conformation may be described as follows: head - clean, sometimes coarse, ram profile, with long ears and usually a short poll; neck - medium-long, straight and well muscled; medium-high and long withers; straight, short and solid back; well-muscled loin; slightly sloping and heavily-muscled croup; medium-long and correctly-sloping shoulders; deep and long-ribbed chest; correctly-set legs, hindlegs often bowed; well-developed clean joints; hard hoofs. Although the Kabarda has only a moderate hair coat its mane and tail may be quite thick and legs may have feather on the fetlocks. Predominant color cherry bay, often bay brown; black is rare.
The Kabarda horse is well fitted for mountain and stony terrain. It is considered to be the best mountain horse. It can show a fair speed and remarkable endurance. The breed's speed record is 1 min 54 sec for 1600 m and 2 min 44.2 sec for 2400 m. The record for the 50 km long distance is 1 hour 41 min 25 sec.
The purebred population recorded in volumes I-III (1935-53) of the studbook was 446 stallions and 3272 mares. The breed's breeding nucleus has dropped to 400-450 mares concentrated at Malokarachaevski and Malkinski studs and at the horse breeding farms of the Karachaevo-Cherkess Autonomous Region. The sharp decline of the pedigree nucleus stock explained by the insufficient speed of Kabarda horses in hippodrome tests.
The main breeding centers are Malkinski stud in the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Republic, and Malokarachaevski stud and the breeding farm of Krasny Partizan collective farm in Stavropol territory.
There are 4 blood lines in the breed. A new breed group has been formed by crossing the Kabarda with the Thoroughbred, the blood of the latter being from 5/8 to 3/4. Anglo-Kabarda horses are noted for their strong constitution, high speed and vigor. They combine perfectly the advantages of the foundation breeds and are of a very special type. In 1966 this breed group was recognized. The breeding farms of Kabardino-Balkar and Stavropol regions breed both purebred Kabarda and Anglo-Kabarda horses.
The breed needs protection.
|Karabair *||Also Known By: Karabairskaya (Russian)
The Karabair is one of the most ancient breeds of Central Asia. Developed in Uzbekistan and northern Tajikistan the breed was established under the influence of southern and steppe breeds. It is well adapted to used under saddle and in harness. It has the typical build of a saddle and harness horse.
The Karabair purebred population recorded in volumes I-IV of the studbook was 1537 stallions and 3871 mares. The Karabair breed is zoned for breeding in all regions of the Uzbek Republic.
In appearance the Karabair resembles the Arabian, Persian, and Turkmenian as well as the steppe breeds. It has a medium-sized clean-cut head with a straight or ram profile, wide jaw, medium-long poll and high set medium-long neck. Some Karabairs may have a shorter heavily muscled neck. It has medium-long, wide and well-muscled loin; regularly sloping and sometimes dropping croup; medium-long shoulders insufficiently sloping; chest well developed in length and width, forequarters more developed than the hindquarters; clean, strong legs with well-defined tendons; correctly-set legs. As a result of insufficient feeding the knee-joints are occasionally underdeveloped and hindlegs may be cow-hocked. The color is bay, chestnut, grey or black.
The measurements (in cm) of the purebreds recorded in volume IV of the studbook are: stallions: height at withers 156, chest girth 175, cannon bone girth 20; mares: 151, 178 and 19 respectively.
The Karabair shows good endurance and versatile working qualities. The breed's records for 1600 and 2400 m are 1 min 54 sec and 2 min 51.4 sec. In the long-distance race it scored 22 min 34.6 sec for 14 km and 42 min 6 sec for 25 km. The Karabair gives good results in long rides. The best time for 75 km is 3 hr 32 min. Speed tests in harness produced the following results: 5 min 51 sec for 1600 m in Russian harness with a 600 kg load; 1600 m were paced in 14 min 45 sec with a2000 kg load. the Karabair performs very well in national types of equestrian sports, mainly in kok-par. The Karabair is distinguished by sound health, average longevity and normal fertility, i.e. 75 to 85 foals per 100 mares.
The breed consists of tree intra-breed types, basic, heavy and saddle, as well as 8 sire lines and 5 mare families.
The mains studs are Jizak stud, the horse breeding farm of Gallyaaral state farm and Navoi stud in Jizak region. The Breed is improved through pure breeding.
|Karabakh *||Also Known By: Karabakhskaya (Russian)
The Karabakh is an ancient mountain saddle breed. It was developed in Nagorny Karabakh in Azerbaijan between the Araks and Kura rivers.
Prior to the 19th century the Karabakh had a substantial influence in improving horse breeds in the neighboring countries. It was developed by crossing the native Azerbaijan horses with Persians, Arabs and Turkmenians. The Arabian influence was most pronounced; there are important similarities in appearance between the Karabakh and the Arabian.
Long-term breeding based on taboon management in the mountains has led to the evolution of specific features in the breed. The horse is not large; its build is clean and thick-set; the muscles are well developed and the tendons are well defined. The head is small and clean-cut; the profile is straight and the eyes alert. The neck is set high and average in length; the withers are average in height; the back is average in length; the loin is flat, short and wide; the croup is average in length , wide and well muscled; the chest is deep. The limbs are properly set, sometimes bowed; the hoofs are not large yet solid. The skin is thin; the hair is soft and gleaming; the hair of the forelock, mane and tail is thin. The color is chestnut, or bay with a characteristic golden tint. The average measurements (in cm) of stallions are: height at withers 150, oblique body length 147, chest girth 169, cannon bone girth 18.6; mares: 146, 145, 164 and 18.5 respectively.
Breed numbers are very small. At present, the Karabakh is bred at Agdam stud, yet the total herd is composed of Arab Karabakh crossbred of various grades. Effort are currently under way to regenerate the Karabakh breed. In 1981, Volume 1 of the studbook was published.
|Kazakh *||This group of steppe horses was numerous as early as the 5th century B.C. Since then Kazakh horses were influenced by many breeds - Mongolian, Karabair, Arabian and Akhal-Teke. In the late 20th century, Kazakh horses have been improved by the Thoroughbred, Orlov Trotter and Don.
Kazakhstan horses are kept on pastures the year round. They are concentrated in western Kazakhstan. In this vast territory they have become differentiated into various ecological types and varieties. The most widespread are: the Jabe and the Adaev.
Jabe horses were formed in southern districts of Aktubinsk regions and then spread all over Kazakhstan. Their most important characteristics are: rugged head, thick neck, wide body and deep chest. The back is straight and the croup well muscled. Legs are set correctly and are sufficiently strong. The skin is thick and dense; hair covering is rather good. Color is bay, dark bay or red, occasionally grayish or grey.
The measurements of stallions (in cm) are: height at withers 144, chest girth 180, cannon bone girth 19; those of mares are lower 142, 178, and 18.8 respectively. Considering their small measurements, Kazakh horses of the Jabe type have a high live weight - 400-500 kg.
Milk and meat performance of Jabe horses are very high - some mares yield up to 20 kg of milk at hand-milking and they fatten quickly.
Horses of the Adaev type have a more pronounced saddle character; they have a more clean-cut conformation, light head, long neck, well-defined withers, and straight back. However, horses with narrow chest and too light bone occur because of the primitive management conditions.
All in all, Kazakh horses fall short in performance. Their gaits are poor: short stride, jolting and not strong trot. At the same time they are very hardy. Thus the stallion Zolotnik covered 264 km per day and Adaev horses did 297 km during a daily run. Jabe horses are noted for their good meat characteristics - the meat yield at slaughter is 57-60%. The Kazakh breed numbers over 300,000. The best farm in the Mugojar stud.
|Kerry Bog Pony *||The Kerry bog Pony almost became extinct. By 1994 there were only 20 ponies left in the whole of Ireland.
The Kerry Bog Pony is quite small - almost like a Shetland Pony - about 10 or 11 hands high, with a distinctive dish or curved face. rather like an Arab. Breed colours are chestnut with black mane and tail or grey and also bay.
To establish whether or not these ponies are truly survivors of a rare breed, the stallion Flashy Fox was tester for genetic markers by Wetherbys Ireland, and was satisfactorily blood-typed in 1994. Now the Kerry Bog Pony Society has been formed.
Traditionally these little ponies have been used for bringing out peat, i.e. turf, from the bogs. The original method of transporting was in baskets placed on crudely constructed wheel-less slides, which consisted of two shafts made from the holly or birch trees which grow in the bogs. Later, small wheeled carts came into use, particularly in the less boggy areas. The turf was thrown into baskets and transported by the ponies for use as domestic fuel in houses.
It was about 10 years ago that Mr. John Mulvihill of Glengeigh, Co. Kerry first acquired a little chestnut stallion and recognised it almost immediately as a Kerry Bog Pony. The grandson of that pony is Flashy Fox whose dam is known as Purple Heather. Other stallions are Old Peat and the Bogman, these three stallions are the nucleus of the breeding herd in Kerry.
To symbolise the pony's link with the heritage of the bog, these ponies are named after bog flora and fauna. As well as those named above The Badger Queen, Bog Cotton, the Brave Badger, Bog Oak, are just some of the names.
|Kiger Mustang *||Also Known By: Kiger Mesteño
For decades it was largely accepted that the Spanish bloodlines from which the Mustangs of the American west had descended were either lost or very diluted in the current day Mustangs. However, some people speculated that there might be isolated herds of horses which would still have a strong Spanish influence. In 1977, a herd of mustangs which appeared to be largely of Spanish descent were brought in from the remote and rugged Beaty Butte region in Lake County, Oregon. The animals were uniformly of a dun coloration, ranging from brown-dun to nearly white. All had dorsal stripes and zebra striped legs. Two subsequent groups were gathered from the same area and were equally uniform in size and color. The Kiger Mustang shows the classic Barb head and the right size with an average weight of between 700 and 800 pounds.
Steps were taken immediately to preserve these unique horses. The herd was split in two with 20 animals being released on the East Kiger Herd Management Area and the remaining seven turned out on the Riddle Mountain Herd Management Area, about five miles to the northeast. To prevent contamination of the breeding stock measures were taken to make certain there were no other horses in either area .
Several of the Kiger Mustangs have been adopted through the BLM's Adopt-A-Horse Program and have shown a great willingness to learn and good working qualities. The Kigers appear to be naturals at working cattle which would be consistent with their Spanish bloodlines.
|Kirdi Pony||Also Known By: Cameroon Pony, Lakka, Logone, Mbai, M'baye, Moussey, Mussey, Pagan, Sara
The Kirdi Pony is found in the Logone river basin in southwest Chad and northern Cameroon. It is used primarily as a riding animal.
|Kisber Felver *||The Kisber Felver breed was developed at the former Kisber Stud in Hungary. The stud farm was founded in 1853 on 15,000 acres. It was developed primarily for the breeding of Thoroughbred horses. The stud produced such racing talents as Kisber, winner of the Epsom Derby; and Kincsem, the unbeatable mare who made her way into the Guinness Book of World Records for an unbeaten 54 races. The Kisber Stud not only left permanent marks on Thoroughbred racing history, but also developed a half-bred horse that was regarded as the world's most beautiful sport horse. Through a carefully planned and controlled breeding program, rigorous in its selection process, a distinct type evolved. Created over a hundred years ago, the Kisber Felver clearly displays the traits that we desire in the modern sport horse: conformation, athletic ability, movement, and temperament.
Few countries have experienced the turmoil's of war as often as Hungary. Each invasion left ifs mark on the horses. Unfortunately, World War I and World War II nearly destroyed them. In 1945, more than half-breeding stock was taken as war damages. Many were adopted by other breeds to use as improvement stock. A very famous example of this is the Trakehner Burnus, who carries not one drop of Trakehner blood, but is in fact a classically bred Kisber Felver. 150 Kisber Felver horses were imported for the US Remount. Unlike the romantic and yet similar story of the Lippizaner, these horses were sold at public auction in 1947 when the remount disbanded. Only a handful of people understood the true value of these horses and only through their diligence and passion for these "Heavenly Horses" do they remain in North America.
Efforts are being made on two continents to save this breed. Faced with extinction, there are less than 2000 Kisber Felvers in the world. This breed is struggling for recognition, but has individuals worthy of notice.
The Association aims to produce a superior performance horse that encompasses beauty, endurance, mental and physical balance, and an excellent character. Kisber Felvers are capable of performing in all modern sport horse disciplines. They range in all solid colors, including palomino and buckskin. Sizes are 15.3 to 17.0 hands. Accepted crosses: Trakehner, Thoroughbred, Arabian, Anglo-Arabian, Shagya Arabian, and Selle Francais with a four generation pedigree and minimum size of 15.2 hands. All breeding stallions must be inspected and licensed by the breeding committee to be used for breeding.
|Kiso||The Kiso horse has inhabited Japan for about one thousand years and has in the past been an indispensable aid for farm use, transportation, and power. Exact origin of the Kiso and other ancient horse breeds of Japan is uncertain. They are believed to be descended from either the plateau horses of Central Asia or the Mongolian horses of the grasslands.
Japan uses horses for military purposes as well as in agriculture and transportation. In the twelfth century, the warrior Yashinaka Kiso reportedly had 10,000 horse soldiers. In the Edo era (1600-1867) there was again emphasis on military use. Kiso canyon belonged to the Owari feudal clan. Records from this time regarding the ancient types have been a valuable aid to modern horse breeders. The government of the Kiso area considered the Kiso horse a strategic material, and produced many; numbers again reaching more than 10,000.
During the Meiji period (1868-1903), Japan fought against several foreign countries. Because Japanese horses are generally small in size, the authorities discouraged breeding purebred Kiso and encouraged a crossbreeding program between the Kiso and larger western horses. During the period surrounding World War II a government program was administered for the purpose of castrating purebred Kiso males. Consequently, almost all Kiso stallions were castrated. The Kiso was effected more dramatically by this administration plan because the breed had traditionally been considered a good military horse. Other Japanese horses were primarily used for agricultural purposes.
The existence of the Kiso breed is mainly due to a single horse kept as a holy horse at a Shinto shrine and therefore had not been castrated. The horse, named Shinmei, and another Kiso mare named Kayama gave birth to Dai-san Haruyama in 1951. This horse became the last of the pure Kiso. The present Kiso breed is a back-bred breed among the descendants of Dai-san Haruyama and other Kiso descendants. There are some ranches in Japan which specialize in Kiso or other Japanese horses.
The Kiso horse has a temperament quite similar to the Tarpan. They have been described as being similar in appearance to the Przewalski or the Mongolian horse. Some Kiso have dorsal stripe, which is one criteria for measuring the pureness of the horse as a Kiso.
|Kladruby *||Also Known By: Kladrubský (Czech), Kladruber (German)
Kladruby stud was found in 1579 by the Emperor of Rome and the Czech King Rudolf II. The foundation charter is on display at the Slatinany Hippologic Museum.
The stud was based mainly on imported Spanish and Italian horses, crossed with Neapolitane, Danish, Holstein, Irish, heavier Czech and Oldenburg horses. All of breeds used had some Andalusian breeding in their pedigree.
The Kladruby stud was located at the Perlstein stables where horses had been bred by Maxmilian II for the previous 20 years.
The focus of the Kladruby stud's breeding program was to produce heavy carriage horses for ceremonial four and six-in-hand tractions. Lipiza breeding farm was found a year later in 1580 and it had a different target - to produce riding horses mainly for imperial ceremonies and cavalry. The White Kladrubers were used for earthly and the Black ones for clerical ceremonials. The imperial ceremonial rules required 18 black stallions and 18 white ones until the end of World War I.
The pinacle of the Kladruby stud came in the beginning of 18th century with the reign of an impassioned hippologist Karel VI. Large numbers of paintings and prints of Kladruby horses originate from the time of Karel VI. reign.
The famous horse-painter Wouwermann and the Hamilton family created a vast number of paintings capturing various Kladruby horse types. They created hippologically and artistically valuable works, which are presently on view at the Slatinany Hippologic Museum.
The Kladruby stud was evacuated into Kopcany (Slovakia) and Enyed (Hungary) during the "Seven Years War". In 1757 the stud farm burned. Breeding documents were damaged that time and Marie Terezie liquidated the farm. The Kladruby stud in Enyed and Kopcany didn't prosper and was transfered back into the new farm in Kladruby several years later.
Kladruber (formerly described as Equus Bohemicus) is a large, warm blooded horse of Spanish and Italian origin which has acclimated to the inclement climate of Central Europe. It is a heavy majestic carossier with a concave head profile, a swanlike neck and a high gait. The Kladruber is bred in two forms - Black (at Slatinany) and White (at Kladruby). The population is highly inbred which is why it is highly vulnerable.
The withers height of Kladruber varies usually from 175 to 180cm, chest girt is approximately 250cm, metacarpus girt is just about 22-23cm, weight often exceeds 700kg.
Kladruby stallion Generale (born in 1787 in Kopcany) is considered to be a progenitor of presently living population of White Kladrubers. Generale's son Generalissimus (born 1797 from Bellona) became a founder of a separate lineage.
Maestoso (1773) and Favory (1779), two stallions born in Kladruby, became progenitors of famous Lippizaner lineages. Arabian Shagya X and Orlov Trotters Barzoi and Legion were used for blood freshening between WWI and WWII. Favory blood lineage returned to Kladruby after the WWII, when the Kladruber population was reduced. Rudolfo, Lusitano imported from Portugal after the WWII, also has several daughters which are submitted into the Kladruber studbook.
Black Kladruber had two important lineages: Sacramoso (born in 1799) and Napoleone (1845). The stud was regenerated in Slatinany. There are some differencies in the black and the white type. The White Kladruber is more thoroughbred type, has higher level of oriental blood and a gentler cranium. Black Kladruber has slightly more nordic - occidental blood and much more Neapolitan blood. That is why the Blacks have a slightly different head and neck shape and a shorter croup. Sacramoso lineage brought to the Blacks the typical cranium shape, more concave in the splanchnocranium and nearly plane in the forehead. In general, the Black Kladruber is heavier and smaller than the white.
The black animals were used primarily as carriage horses for clerical dignitaries. In 1930, the black herd was dispersed with most of the animals going to meat processors. A plan was later developed, using the remaining black mares, to re-establish the black line. The Research Institute for Horse Breeding in Slatinany was where this plan was carried out successfully.
The Kladruby is currently used for sport driving. Both lines have been used numerous times in world championship four-in-hand driving classes.
Due to its breeding, the Kladruby is considered somewhat unique in the equine world. The breed has a four hundred year old selection history and is considered the only indigenous breed of the region. It is one of the rarer breeds in the world with only 90 remaining females in 1995.
|Kushum *||Also Known By: Kushumskaya (Russian), West Kazakh Saddle-Draft
The Kushum breed was developed at Pytimarsk and Furman studs in Urals region of Kazakhstan from 1931 to 1976. The breed was developed largely from trotter, Thoroughbred, Don, Budyonny and Kazakh breeding.
Originally, the goal was to develop, on the basis of the native Kazakh horses, a good army mount suitable for keeping in taboons all the year round. Kazakh mares were crossed with Thoroughbreds and half breeds, as well as the trotters, to obtain larger size and to improve gaits.
To retain the Kazakhs' high adaptability to taboon management while maintaining and improving the size and action, the crossbreds were mated with Don stallions. The three-way crosses were subsequently bred inter se. As a result, a new breed was developed, characterized by high adaptability, large size and good versatile working qualities.
Its high adaptability to local conditions, reflected in increased weight gain in spring and autumn, renders the Kushum suitable for meat and milk production. Its large size and live weight guarantee a high yield of horse meat.
The characteristic features of the Kushum are a solid build of a saddle-harness horse type; the head is large but nor coarse; the neck is average in length and fleshy; the withers are pronounced; the back is long and flat; the croup is well muscled but, not long enough; the chest is broad and deep; the legs are properly set. The stallions' measurement (in cm) are: height at withers 159, oblique body length 161, chest girth 187, cannon bone girth 20.5. The live weight is 520-550 kg. The mares measure 154, 157, 182 and 19.2 respectively. The colors are bay and chestnut.
The Kushum is versatile and has high endurance. In all-day tests, the best results were 214 and 280 km. The record horse did 100 km in 4 hr and 11 min. In 20 km harness tests at the trot with a pull of 28 kg the best time was 5 min 54 sec; walking time for the same distance with a pull of 70 kg was 16 min 44 sec. The mares' average daily milk yield is 13-14 liters. One kilogram of live weight gain requires an average of 8 fodder units.
With taboon management the Kushum shows fertility and sound health. Eighty to 84 foals per 100 mares survive to one year of age.
The breed comprises three intra-breed types, the basic, the heavily muscled and the saddler. Six lines are being formed. The breed is mainly Pyatimarsk and Krasnodon studs. The outlook is for development through pure breeding.
|Kustanai *||Also Known As: Kustanaiskaya (Russian)
The Kustanai was developed in the steppes of western Kazakhstan at the collective-farm and state-farm studs. The breeding nucleus is concentrated at Kustanai and Maikulski studs. Its development dates from 1887 to 1951. The first date is the year of establishment of the state-owned stud, the Turgai; it was followed by the Kustanai in 1888 and the Orenburg in 1890. The last is the date of official recognition of the Kustanai breed. The new breed was developed by crossing native Kazakh steppe horses with Don, Stralets, Astrakhan (improved Kalmyk) and halfbred Thoroughbred stallions. Nevertheless, at the onset the crossbreeding was unsuccessful. Only after the nucleus of local brood mares, improved by pure breeding and regular creep-feeding, was formed at Kustanai stud did crossbreeding with Thoroughbreds yield a positive result. In the 1920s they began to develop a new breed at Kustanai stud. The work was continued in the 1930 with two systems of management. The first involved keeping in stables and on pastures, winter grazing in good weather, abundant hay and concentrate feeding, hand mating and weaning of the foals at 6-8 months. The other involved improved taboon keeping, year-round grazing and keeping in sheds in bad weather, free mating, hay and concentrate creep-feeding. The first method was employed at Kustanai and Troitske studs and the second at the Maikulski and other studs.
The breeding work was directed at developing simultaneously two types - saddle and steppe. The saddle type included horses with a high proportion of Thoroughbred blood, while the steppe type consisted of Thoroughbred-Don-Kazakh and other crossbreds bred inter se. All saddlers were put to speed tests at the hippodrome. The Kustanai is found in Kustanai region, in the south of Chelyabinsk region and in southern Kazakhstan. The breeding nucleus varied little. In 1930 the breeding herd at the Kustanai stud numbered 1,000 mares. In 1981 the Kustanai and Krasnodon studs had 726 purebred mares. Seven-hundred and forty-six Kustanai pedigree stallions were used in pure breeding and general improvement. In 1980 the total Kustanai horse population numbered 40,200.
The modern Kustanai is a massive horse combining the best characters of a saddler and the pronounced basic steppe lineage. Its features include a straight medium-sized head, wide jaws, medium-long and occasionally short poll; medium-long straight and low-set neck; wide and well-muscled, medium-high withers; straight, wide and short back; flat, solid and well-muscled loin; medium-long, occasionally short, nicely-rounded croup; long and high-set shoulders; wide and deep chest; correctly-set legs, well-developed joints, hard hoofs; strong tendons and ligaments; clean and hardy build. The Kustanai shows remarkable fitness in a continental climate. The measurements (in cm) of stallions at stud in 1980 were: height at withers 163, oblique body length 161, chest girth 188, cannon bone girth 20.3; mares: 160, 159, 189 and 19.2. Colour: bay, chestnut, reddish-grey, brown.
The Kustanai shows remarkable speed. Its records are 1 min 40.7 sec for 1600 m, 2 min 34.7 sec for 2400 m. Horses of the basic type show good action in the Russian harness. The record of maximum draught power is 456 kg; the average time with a 22-kg load at the trot for 2000 m is 6 min. The Kustanai also has admirable endurance. For instance, the stallion Storm covered 178 km in 15 hours; Chervonets covered 100 km in 4 hours 1 min 5 sec. The best results of a 24-hour ride is 286.1 km. The record of a 6-day 420-km ride is 22 hours 32 min 31 sec. The fertility of Kustanai mares at some studs reaches 90%. Irrespective of the management system employed, the Kustanai longevity often exceeds 20 years.
The breed consists of 3 intra-breed types, 5 sire lines and 6 mare families.
Three volumes of the studbook have been published. The main breeding centres are the Kustanai regional experiment station (formerly a horse stud) and Krasnodon and Saryturgai studs. The breed has good prospects for pure breeding with limited corrective crossbreeding by the Thoroughbred.
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